The Rusty Romulan

An unfortunate Romulan Bird of Prey crashed on an alien world many years ago and nature is taking over. (Robin Rowland)

My latest project, The Rusty Romulan, was begun to solve a very old problem. When I was a teenager (yes that long ago, when Star Trek the Original Series was still on the air on NBC) I built all the available Star Trek models from AMT, including the Romulan Bird of Prey.




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My original build of the Romulan Bird of Prey from the late 1960s.

There was one problem with that model. There was something wrong with the spray paint I bought (memory fades) either at my neighborhood hobby shop or perhaps a hardware store was faulty and the metallic paint was rough and potmarked.

Somehow, unlike all the other models I built in those days, the Romulan Bird of Prey was the only one that survived. Like some other models, it ended up in a box of books that I unpacked when I retired. (Yes it was that long ago).

So the Bird of Prey was hanging around on a shelf until one day I had an idea. Living in northern British Columbia you often come upon crashed cars in the bush, completely rusty and overgrown. Or illegally abandoned vessels rusting on a shoreline and also becoming overgrown.

So why not make lemonade from the Bird of Prey and turn it into a rusty Romulan.

So that’s what I did.

The repainted and now rusty Romulan Bird of Prey.

The Romulan Transportation Safety Board has not yet investigated the crash. The Bird of Prey is listed as missing. So the reasons for the crash (and if the crew survived) is unknown. The space craft managed to reenter the atmosphere intact. There was no significant battle damage and the crew did not trigger the self destruct. However there was clearly some exterior damage, either in space perhaps causing the emergency landing or during reentry.

The Bird of Prey livery was damaged during re-entry. (Robin Rowland)

I scored the old model with my Dremel sander on a very slow rotation. Then painted some areas black for the re-entry burn and then added the initial rust in light washes.

The Rusty Romulan on the workbench. (Robin Rowland)

I wanted the Bird of Prey to be somewhat upright, so it came to rest against a ridge so that the livery can be seen. With that design in mind, the decades on the surface of this planet alien to both Human and Romulan will take its toll on the unlucky Bird of Prey.

Top view of the diorama. (Robin Rowland)
A side view (Robin Rowland)
A view of the wreck as if someone, Human, Romulan, indigenous to the planet or other alien is walking up to it. (Robin Rowland)
The Bird of Prey came to rest against a ridge face. (Robin Rowland)
A closer view of the Bird of Prey on top of the ridge. (Robin Rowland)

I wanted an alien look while maintaining the scale. The Bird of Prey has four decks and is 21.9 metres (71.8 feet) high by 90.6 metres (297.2 feet) wide. So the trees and other vegetation (allowing that this is an alien world) had to be proportional.

A visitor approaches the rusty wreck of the Romulan Bird of Prey (Robin Rowland)

One of the species of vines on this part of the world are made from ornamental moss from a dollar store, the kind usually put in planters.

Our visitor is walking around looking at the Bird of Prey, with the winged livery still visible among the rust. (Robin Rowland)

The “conifers” are the standard, cheapest, model railway trees, with purple foam added.

Our curious visitor continues to walk around the wreck. (Robin Rowland)

The trees are Woodland Scenics Light Green Forest Canopy using just the very tops of the plant material. (Chaos theory is at work here, the tiny tops are just like the bigger trees designed for a model railway.)

The visitor looks up at the rusty hull. (Robin Rowland)

The original AMT model did not have the portholes in the Bird of Prey so I drilled the holes. The fibrous material is a model railway grass and the orange fungi is a chalk.

Now the visitor ventures to walk on the hull of the wreck. (Robin Rowland)

The built up leaves on the hull are just that. Autumn leaves collected, dried and then pulverized in a blender. (It is another model railway technique. However if you are using a blender make sure to use one that comes with both glass and metal containers–and use the metal one).

The visitor looks over to what was once the bridge of the Bird of Prey. (Robin Rowland)
Our curious visitor continues to explore the hull of the Bird of Prey. (Robin Rowland)

The final touch, the second species of vines, are “silk” from corn-on-the-cob.

The Eagle of the Ninth (updated) Roman Signal Station diorama

(This is the second of my scratch building and modelling projects based on the books I loved as a kid)

A ruined Roman signal station in the fog of the coast of Northumbria or Scotland. (Robin Rowland)

Rosemary Sutcliff was my premier favourite author as a kid–and I still reread her novels from time to time more than 40 years later.

Her first, and by far her most famous novel was The Eagle of the Ninth, first published in 1954. I must have first read it when I took out of the library six years later,聽 when I was ten,around 1960. 聽The Eagle of the Ninth is still one of my favourite novels, the story of the young Marcus Flavius Aquila and his freedman Esca searching the wilds of Caledonia (now Scotland) for the eagle of the lost Ninth Legion. It’s also still a favourite for fans around the world to this day (including those who had to take in school in Grade 9 in the 60s and 70s in both British Columbia and Ontario and probably elsewhere).

The Eagle of the Ninth also finally became a Hollywood movie, The Eagle, in 2011, decades after publication.

Back聽 when I was ten or eleven聽 (and also interested in model railroading)聽 I attempted to build the abandoned Roman signal tower takes place, based on the C.聽 Walter Hodges drawing in the original novel.

As you can see from other entries on this site, for the past year or so, in semi-retirement, I have been scratch building various models, mostly from science fiction.聽So a few months ago, I decided that while I might continue to model Star Wars and Star Trek,聽 those wealthy franchises are getting somewhat stale. Almost everyone else is modelling Star Wars and Star Trek.

S0 it was time to branch out to more interesting work, involving novels I loved when I was growing up, most of which did not make it the big screen.聽 In The Eagle movie, the chase through the moors and the confrontation at the signal tower was dropped for a more “Hollywood” style battle over the eagle of the Ninth Legion (not a satisfying substitution at all in my view). The 1977 BBC television series did use a “tower” set based on the C. Walter Hodges drawing.

Since I had already tried to make the signal tower decades ago as a kid, the obvious choice for an Eagle of the Ninth project was the signal tower.

So why did I update?

The abandoned Roman signal tower as envisioned by artist C. Walter Hodges in the original Eagle fo the Ninth.

My plan at first was a聽 model based on the original drawing from the 1954 novel and used in many of the updates and republished versions.

It would have been a fairly simple project, a small courtyard, what Rosemary Sutcliff called a “guardroom” and the signal tower itself.

(The one perspective problem with the tower drawing is that the entrance gate is too small for people on horseback)

Before starting I did some basic research, checking Roman “signal tower” both in my personal library of Roman military history (which started when I began reading Rosemary Sutcliff) and online. It was soon quite clear that Roman signal tower in Hodge’s drawing bore no resemblance to the vast majority of Roman signal towers through the history of the empire.

A wide view of the Roman signal tower as seen in one brief shot in the 1977 BBC television series Eagle of the Ninth. Likely an “optical” as it was called in the days before CGI, either a matte painting or a model added to a stock shot of a moor.

The one thing that stood out from the current archaeological evidence is that what are still called “signal towers” were not just signal towers or watch towers–which is why the archaeologists prefer the term “signal stations.”聽 Aerial surveillance and on the ground research has shown that in Scotland, northern England and later along the coast known as the Saxon Shore (which Sutcliff describes in The Silver Branch and The Lantern Bearers)聽the stations were relatively close together, some as close to one to two kilometres apart. So while the stations did have signalling capability, it was unlikely they were the hilltop beacon relays used in later centuries such as the Elizabethan and Napoleonic eras.

The stations followed the same basic concept design across the Roman Empire, but the installations varied in size depending on location and the military requirements ranging from a tower in a walled courtyard to mid-sized stations聽 and what archaeologists today are calling a “fortlet” that is a small fort. (Fortlets could apparently be either large signal stations or smaller versions of the standard legionary or auxiliary fortress with just a couple of聽 barracks blocks as well as other buildings).聽 Fortlet signal stations were built along the Saxon Shore when the Roman Empire and Britain was threatened by sea-roving Saxon invaders. Those fortlets were a vital link joining the much larger Saxon Shore fortresses (which are described in The Silver Branch and The Lantern Bearers)

That means the towers themselves were not, as the reader might assume from Eagle of the Ninth,聽 the base for a small lonely team of perhaps four legionaries聽 responsible for the signal system.聽 They varied in size. The stations were likely a base for what today we would call a platoon of perhaps fifteen to fifty men, again depending on the location and military requirements.聽 聽The basic Roman squad was eight men,聽 in the infantry commanded by decanus聽or in the case of cavalry troop of聽 decurion.聽 Some archaeological evidence shows that the towers had stables. Riders could have relayed聽 messages if the weather prevented standard signalling.聽 Stations with perhaps with fifty men could have been commanded by a junior centurion,聽 likely under the eye of an experienced optio or just commanded by an optio,聽 the equivalent of a staff sergeant or senior warrant officer.聽 (Just as today second lieutenants command platoons and are watched by experienced senior non-commissioned officers.)聽 Larger聽 stations including those that could be called fortlets probably could have been the base for one or two centuries of about eighty to聽 one hundred men each.

The fog just begins to clear around the long abandoned Roman signal station. (Robin Rowland)

Hostile territory

As I was reading the admittedly limited online academic literature, (there is more but the public has to pay extortionate prices to read it online from commercial scholarly publishers) the suggestions by the archaeologists on the role of the signal stations somehow began to sound familiar — and not just because I’ve been reading Rosemary Sutcliff and both fiction and nonfiction about the Roman army in the decades since.

I quickly realized that there was similar situation in the wilds of Caledonia as well as聽 Roman garrisoned and for a period Roman occupied province of Valentia and that was what was happening two thousand years later in聽 Afghanistan聽 mainly in Kandahar, Helmand, Urozgan聽 and other聽 provinces from late 2001 until the staggered coalition withdrawal in the early 2010s.

Most of the archaeological papers were written prior to the 21st century war in Afghanistan, some as long ago as a century ago.聽 Academics also usually don’t speculate聽 without corroborating written or other evidence.

What prompted me to build the model in this way was that in my view the Afghanistan model is the best analogy for the Roman signal stations in ancient Britain.

I “covered” the war in Afghanistan from a desk in Toronto as photo editor for CBC News.聽 That meant I was in almost daily contact with our staff and freelance journalists mainly at “Kaf” (Kandahar Air Field) or in Kabul. I knew when our crews were going “outside the wire”as embeds to the forward operating bases (FOB) and forward observations post (FOP or OP depending on which military was on that post).聽 Some independent freelancers I worked with spent most of their time embedded “outside the wire.”聽 Once, by coincidence,聽 one day at a surplus store,聽 looking to buy some outdoor clothes for a nature photography trip to New Mexico I ran into a freelancer colleague I knew who, on a limited budget, was gearing up for an embed in Afghanistan.

My conclusion is that Afghanistan is the best analogy for what Roman soldiers faced in Valentia and Caledonia. The nineteenth century colonial period and the American “old West” are not a good analogy due the EuroAmericans’ overwhelming superiority in the technology of the time.聽 In Afghanistan, the coalition did have a superior military and a technological advantage but, like the Romans facing the northern tribes of ancient Britain, as we have learned over the past decade and more, it wasn’t enough. One archaeologist has suggested the analogy of the United Nations observation posts along the Green Line in Cyprus, but there the role is just observation and with one notable exception–the Turkish invasion–those observation posts were not in hostile territory.

So to continue with the analogy and compare ancient Britain with Afghanistan, the great legionary fortresses at Eburacum (York) and Deva (Chester) could be the equivalent of Kandahar Air Field or Bagram Air Field.

The midsized聽 signal stations were聽 probably the equivalent of the company sized forward operating bases (with the company and supporting troops the equivalent of a Roman century).聽 The legionary and auxiliary forts and fortlets聽 or large signal stations were likely the equivalent of what were called “camps” and “patrol bases” in Afghanistan.聽 聽You can compare this Wikipedia list of ISAF bases聽 with this list of Roman forts and fortlets in Scotland聽 as well as the extensive list of temporary marching camps again just in Scotland.

One of the best know is FOB Martello operated by the Canadian Forces in El Bak, 200 kilometres north of Kandahar.聽 Company sized units and support troops from Canada and the Netherlands were based at Martello.聽 Martello was named for the early nineteenth century defense and observation towers built by the British in England, Canada and elsewhere as a defence during the Napoleonic Wars. Another well known FOB was Ripley built the US Marines in Tarinkot,聽 Urozgan Province and later called FOB Davis by the Australians.

The smaller signal stations the equivalent of observation posts that were the base for one or two platoons of infantry and supporting troops.

One of those聽 US Marine Corps OPs at Kunjack in Helmand Province is described in the book Shooting Ghosts A US Marine, a combat photographer and their journey back from war聽聽聽by Thomas J. Brennan and Finbarr O’Reilly. Brennan says OP Kujack聽 looked large from the bottom of a hill but was actually the size of a high school gym for himself and fifteen Marines. That could also describe one of the smaller Roman signal stations, while larger than a high school gym would have been the base for 15 to 2o men. A study of one site in Scotland聽 speculates there would have been twelve infantry, four officers and eight cavalry or mounted infantry at the station.

A 2007 article in the Canadian Legion Magazine, Ghosts in the Hills, author Adam Day opens with these lines “In the mountains around Forward Operating Base Martello, the enemy are like ghosts; they hide among the villagers and emerge for battle only when and where they choose. Mostly they stay out of sight, firing their mortars and rockets from a distance. Sometimes though, they attack in force.” That could just as easily describe the tribes of Valentia and Caledonia coming out of the mist to attack one of the signal stations.

In both cases, there were smaller observation posts associated with the forward operating bases. At forward operating bases in Afghanistan, there were often observation posts “a couple of hundred metres” outside the main base.聽 Archaeologists have found signal stations just 350 metres from a Roman fortlet.

The ruined tower/ signal station model in “daylight” on the coast. (Robin Rowland)

Artistic licence and planning the model

In planning the model, I wanted to stay as true as possible to the descriptions by Rosemary Sutcliff while working from a base of what we know today from archaeology and history about the signal stations.


  • the “tower” had to be a long abandoned ruin
  • the model should reflect how Marcus and Esca hid from the wild hunt and took refuge in the “tower.”
  • there had to be a high “tower” where Marcus threatened to throw the eagle into the waters below
  • given those considerations, that signal station should reflect, as much as possible, current historic and archaeological knowledge.

So what did the signal station tower actually look like?聽 What we know comes from Trajan’s column which depict signal towers along the Danube River during the Emperor Trajan’s campaign against the Dacians.

Signal towers as depicted on Trajan’s column. (Wikimedia Commons)

A wider view of the towers on Trajan’s column. (Wikimedia Commons)

A stone building surrounded by a wooden palisade from Trajan’s column. (Wikimedia Commons)

So the basic tower as depicted is a stone building with a peaked roof and a balcony where some sort of fire/smoke signal system is used.聽 That’s very different from the scene that C. Walter Hodges imagined in his drawing.

This book cover gives an artist’s concept of how a wooden tower might have looked.

The archaeological evidence indicates that the towers were first made of wood and thatch.聽 If they became a permanent base, the tower would be made of stone with a tiled roof.聽 Eventually the wooden palisade would be replaced by a stone wall with a bastion or tower at each corner and surrounded by a defensive ditch.

One example is Castle Hill in Scarborough, England, as described by the archaeologist聽 R.G. Collingwood聽 in 1930. (The signal station at Scarborough is from the fourth century CE Saxon Shore era).

You can see some aerial photographs from Scotland’s Gask Ridge Project which shows various Roman forts, fortlets, towers and posts at this link.

So with the research in mind, I created the signal station following those plans. However, I made two additions based on my reading. A stable for the horses and a well (at some sites archeologists have found indications of a well).

Top view of the model showing the signal station tower. the stable, stone walls, fallen wall platform and the outer ditch. (Robin Rowland)

Front view of the diorama. (Robin Rowland)

The left view of the diorama. (Robin Rowland)

The right view of the diorama. (Robin Rowland)

Cover of the 1977 Puffin edition of The Eagle of the Ninth, with cover art by David Smee.

I made two decisions that depart from Sutcliff’s text.聽 Marcus and Esca’s return journey is generally in a southeasterly direction from the territory of the Dumnonii toward Borcovicus on Hadrian’s Wall (modern Pevensey) in the centre of the island. In the novel the tower is described as on a scarp overlooking a tarn. A tarn is a lake聽 in a hollow that was carved out by the glaciers during the last ice age.聽 The signal tower in聽 David Smee’s cover for the 1977 Puffin edition depicts a much larger body of water, probably the North Sea. So I decided somewhat arbitrarily to place my model on a cliffside overlooking the ocean similar to the signal tower at Scarborough because it offered more interesting modelling opportunities.聽 I also had a photograph that resembled the background of the Smee painting (as you can see from the images above) that I could Photoshop in as a background.

The second decision was that the wild hunt for the two happens in the autumn, with the furze, bracken and heather are brown and colourless.聽 A summer scene would work better for the diorama.

The rear view of the diorama. (Robin Rowland)

The other artistic change is that the tower on the right of this image is taller than the other three–just so Marcus and Esca can get up there, pursued by Liathan and his two young friends.

Time and place

The Romans under聽Governor Julius Agricola invaded Scotland in 80 CE and conquered much of the lowlands, ending with the Battle of Mons Graupius in the Highlands in 84.聽 Agricola left the following year and the Romans tried to consolidate their conquest by building a series of forts, fortlets and signal stations across the occupied territory. Just as the war in Iraq diverted American and coalition attention from Afghanistan, the Emperor Domitian withdrew troops from Caledonian territory for his war in Dacia. It was during this period that a series of close signal stations were built, many along the Gask Ridge, and called by some archaeologists “glen blockers.”

Over the next decades the Romans were bogged down in Caledonia, withdrawing from the more hostile areas. The Emperor Trajan聽 also withdrew more troops for his campaigns elsewhere,聽 leaving the same kind of military vacuum seen today in Afghanistan.聽 聽The Caledonian revolt where the Ninth Legion may have disappeared occurred in 117 CE just as Hadrian was coming to the throne and there was unrest across the Empire.聽 (What actually happened to the Ninth Legion is still disputed by scholars, the Wikipedia link summarizes that debate).聽 Construction of Hadrian’s Wall began in 122 and was completed six years later.聽 So while the date isn’t exactly clear, it appears that Marcus arrived in Britannia as a junior auxiliary cohort centurion around 130 CE.

Closer view of the courtyard of the signal station. (Robin Rowland)

On their adventure beyond the wall Marcus and Esca reach聽 the fortress of聽 Trimontium,聽 (today聽Newstead, near Melrose, Scottish Borders) named for what today are known as the聽 three Eildon Hills ( the name trium montium three hills or three mountains). Sutcliff says the double cohort fort had been abandoned for thirty years.聽 That matches current knowledge and evidence.聽 Trimontium first began as a signal station聽in the campaign in 80 BCE and was later expanded to a full fortress–built by the Ninth Legion.聽 聽That plan then was a line of forts, fortlets and signal stations聽 that would ensure Roman rule over the region and聽 allow for quick reinforcement it any element in the chain was attacked. (Again the Afghanistan analogy is apt. ) Trimontiumn was abandoned about聽 20 years later between聽 100 and 105 BCE, which fits Sutcliff’s timeline.

So she wrote:

Now the wild had flowed in again, grass covered the cobbles of the streets, timber roofs had fallen in and the red sandstone walls stood gaunt and empty to the sky. The wells were choked with the debris of thirty autumns and an elder-tree had taken root in one corner of the roofless shrine where once had stood the cohort’s standard and the altars of its gods…..


If a signal station was abandoned at the same time, that description聽 would be the basis for the model.

The Wild Hunt

“Swathes of mist, drawn up from the deep glen, were still drifting across it before the rising wind, but as a starting point, upward of a bowshot away, something that might be a broch loomed through the greyness.”

“They swung in their tracks toward the nearest tongue of birch woods…”

Model railway birch trees.

“a mass of furze seemed to offer a certain amount of cover聽 and they dived into it liked hunted animals going to ground and began to work their way towards its heart.”

“A dark and evidently much-used tunnel in the furze opened up to them and they slid into it, Esca leading.聽 The reek of fox grew stronger than ever.”

N scale foxes from Langley Models.

Here you see the station’s vallum ditch, the yellow furze and the purple heather (as well as the foxes). The long abandoned Roman road leading to the station is covered in grass and undergrowth and has collapsed where it has been undermined by the ditch which is now a dirty stream.

“The building they had glimpsed through the mist was quite clear now; not a broch at all but an old Roman signal tower.”

“”The narrow archway, doorless now, gaped blankly in the wall…they stumbled through into a small courtyard…”

” Another empty door faced them…”

“a small courtyard where grass had long since covered the cobbles”

The balcony on four sides of the signal station tower that would have been used for the smoke or fire signals, has mostly long since collapsed.

Here is where I changed the scenario….assuming that much of the signal station tower’s ceilings/floors have collapsed….and to let Marcus and Esca get up the bastion tower聽 so聽 the model does pay tribute to the novel.

which means they head through the undergrowth past what’s left of the stables to that tower.

“Marcus was almost blinded by the thrashing to great black wings past his face and a startled raven burst upward uttering its harsh, grating alarm cry, and flew off northward with slow, indignant wing beats, caaking as it went.”

The ravens are Preiser HO scale crows. (since ravens are larger than crows and so fit in N Scale 1/144 to 1/160.)

I decided not to have any human figures in the model, imagining what the signal station would be like on any day in 130 CE when humans weren’t present.

The “well choked with the debris of thirty autumns”聽 in the courtyard of the signal station. The wood, logs and tiles are聽 from the station building and the collapse of the wall platform.

What’s left of the stables.


Gulls (and other seabirds) on the old peaked roof. The gulls and seabirds are a mixture of N Scale gulls from Langley Models and Prieser HO gulls and other birds (when the tiny figures were put side by side there wasn’t much difference.)

A Preiser bird on one of the towers.

A Preiser bird on one of the towers.

A couple of Langley seagulls on the wall of the signal station.

Gulls and other seabirds on the ocean side. (In this photo, the supports for the birds have been removed in Photoshop to make them appear to be flying)

A closer view of the gulls and seabirds on the ocean side.



N scale (1/44 to 1/60)

Station walls…..thick corrugated cardboard covered with printed stone sheets.聽 Station cobbles, printed stone sheets


Prescription bottles covered with printed stone sheets with bastion tower tops the reversed lid of the prescription bottle


Top from a liquid egg container

Various brands of model railway ground coverage and foliage that I have picked up over the years

Roman Road

A printed stone sheet


Sony Alpha 6000聽 18 to 55 lens

Sony Alpha 77聽 with 100mm Macro lens

Android phone camera

The fog image

An old shot of the west coast of Ireland on a cloudy day taken back in 1978

First Photoshopped in the front of the signal station.

Second image I added a very low opacity light grey fill layer, followed by a darker grey fill gradient fill layer with the darker fill toward the top.

Third image I added a third mid-opacity light grey fill layer to make it look really foggy,


Turning router packing into a ruined alien temple

Original router packaging and the resulting model photoshopped into a jungle setting. (Robin Rowland)

Just before Christmas, I purchased a new router. Opened the box and the router was packaged in papier-m芒ch茅, a more environmentally friendly to all that plastic.聽 I took one look at it and it reminded me聽 of all those photos of聽 jungle ruins.

Finely carved corridors from the ruins of the Buddhist temple of Angkor Ta Prohm in Siem Reap, Cambodia. It dates to the 12th and 13th century and was built by king Jayavarman VII who is considered to be one of the greatest rulers of the ancient Khmer Empire. Allie Caulfield/ Wikimedia Commons


Ruins on a hill behind the better excavated ruins at Palenque. Alastair Rae / Wikimedia Commons

So I imagined that once on an alien world (of course it could just as well be Earth) that once there was an impressive building, the Emerald Temple, that was for some reason lost to history abandoned and thus the jungle took over. But this temple was so well built that most of it has survived the ages.

So I put my several ongoing kitbashing ship model projects aside to create the temple.聽 It took about five hours work over three days.

Close up view of the packaging. It certainly looks as if it’s a web of vines . (Robin Rowland)

I am calling this the Emerald Temple.聽 There was once cladding or covering or paint that when the temple was new and active would have been a bright emerald green.聽 That has now decayed so I began with a very light spray of emerald green spray paint plus a little camouflage olive green spray paint.

The Emerald Temple begins to take shape. (Robin Rowland)

A closer view of the emerald paint on one of the towers (Robin Rowland)

Top view of the unpainted packing (Robin Rowland)

I began with the top of the temple, adding a mix of commercial autumn leaves ground cover with dried tea from old tea bags to create the old leaves and other forest detritus that has built up over the years.

Ground cover and tea leaves create the detritus that has built over the years and decades. (Robin Rowland)

Front view with the old leaves and other forest detritus. (Robin Rowland)

I then added several layers of different coloured ground cover and foam bushes.

Ground cover added to all sections of the Emerald Temple (Robin Rowland)

A closer view of one of the towers. (Robin Rowland)

Additional plant life were twigs from my garden and a tomato stem, dipped in dilute white glue and then with some ground cover added.

An even closer view of the tower. (Robin Rowland)

And here is the final product

The Emerald Temple model. (Robin Rowland)

A slightly different angle. All the final product photos were shot in direct sunlight through a window. (Robin Rowland)

Close shot of the tower with modelling complete. (Robin Rowland)

Finally I photoshopped the completed model into an old screen grab of the jungle in Thailand from a documentary I shot back in 1997,聽 worked so that the temple appears to be part of the older, lower resolution video. It’s up to the viewer to decide whether or not the temple is part of a lost civilization on Earth or on an alien world.

Snowspeeders at a hidden base

One of my holiday hobby projects was painting the Star Wars Command snowspeeders (with the aim, of course, photographing them in the snow.)

So imagine that on Hoth (or some other snowy world) some snowspeeders escaped the Empire attack on the main base and have found refuge in a hidden valley. (Planets are big places)

But given the Empire’s tech, and orbiting satellites, or patrols, the lined up snowspeeders could be spotted from above.

So that means it is a good tactic to disperse the snow speeders, with the pilot carefully landing this one at the edge of a cliff.

A second pilot brings the snowspeeder in right under the lip of a snowbank.

(Photos of other projects coming soon)

What is a tier trestle?

The term tier trestle is fairly recent, given by historians to the聽bridges built along the route of the Burma Thailand Railway (the聽River Kwai). See, for example, this Australian聽government report.

The term could, of course, refer to what are聽called the levels or stories on a standard trestle. (The Oxford聽Dictionary defines tier as one of聽several units of a structure placed one above the other.)


There are key differences with the tier trestle and the engineering聽standard. The river bridges built by the Imperial Japanese Army聽engineers using prisoner of war and indigenous slave labour did
follow engineering standards and were solid enough to survive聽repeated attacks by British and American bombers.

On聽the other hand, the bridges over the hundreds of ravines were聽not-so-solid, built hastily and by engineering units that were not as聽experienced or competent as those building the actual river bridges.

Recent scholarship seems to indicate that the long-term Japanese聽plans called for these bridges to be filled and covered with earth. a聽method described in the Merriman聽Wiggin American Civil Engineer’s Handbook, an indication that the聽similar methods were used in North America.

Steam era modelers may聽want to use the tier trestle bridge or some variant for what the
Handbook calls “construction trestles” on temporary lines, or on narrow聽gauge railways. The handbook recommended removing the bracing during聽the fill process when it is reached by the fill to prevent the pull聽in the bracing under the load of the fill from distorting the posts聽and even breaking them.

In muddy conditions, common in the rain
forest, it warned that “if piles were driven into the mud,
sudden movements of the mud and newly made fill frequently not only
break the braces but snap off the piles and demolish the entire
structure. Such trestles should be built of piles of large diameter,
driven to hardpan and heavily sway braced and the sway bracing
removed when reached by fill.”

Due to war time pressures, in聽many cases, this step was never completed and so the tier trestle聽bridges were used until the line was abandoned, often requiring聽frequent repairs.

Characteristics of a
“tier trestle.”


  • Longer caps
    and sills, and a longer horizontal bent brace at one level reaching
    out beyond the normal exterior bent posts.

  • Additional
    vertical bent posts along the outer edge with horizontal girts that
    reinforce the bridge between the caps, sills and horizontal bent

  • Additional
    bracing from raw logs that are attached to the ends of the caps,
    sills and bent brace.

  • Additional diagonal bracing between the
    platform and the cap. These braces were found on all the bridges
    built on the Burma Thailand Railway, not just the ones over ravines.
    In some cases, there sometimes occasional longer bridge ties visible
    in old photographs, indicating that there may have been bracing on
    there as well.



The Merriman Wiggin handbook makes no mention聽of this type of construction, so it may be that the Japanese聽engineers improvised at first and then adopted the method along the聽entire railway.


The Japanese engineers used local hardwood, mostly teak, to build all聽the bridges. In my preliminary research experienced bridge modelers聽told me that dowels that are true to N scale are not available.

Finished logs



  • bamboo
    skewers available in any supermarket

  • round

  • parts of bamboo place mats. (I was able
    get them very cheap from a Japanese shop in Toronto. They had been
    used for window display and so came in various shades even on the
    same mat due to fading in the sun.



Squared wood.


  • Kit bashed from the Hunterline
    N Scale 81 foot trestle bridge.



Support logs


  • At first I couldn’t figure out how to do聽the logs that support the bridge. The solution came from another聽technique, while I was using the blender to turn old leaves to dust聽for ground cover, as a number of modelers have recommended. Those聽instructions say discard the stems. But as I was cutting the stems聽off, I realized they were prefect for the tree trunks that were used聽to support the bridge.





  • Micro
    Engineering bridge flex track

  • Centre planks
    (HO size) 2×2 lumber

  • Tie supports (HO size) 1×3 lumber



Staining the wood
The tropical hardwoods, like teak, used in the building of the bridge聽are usually insect and rot resistant without use of preservatives聽such as creosote. And creosote was not available during the war. So I聽stained one third of the bamboo skewers, toothpicks and Hunterline聽stringers and sway braces with teak stain. Another third was stained聽with teak stain mixed with neutral for a lighter shade. The final聽third was left natural. The bamboo place mats were left natural.

Building the bents
Construction methods on the ravine bridges were hurried and often聽slipshod. One called “The Pack of Cards Bridge,” built by聽conscripted Burmese forced labour under Japanese supervision聽collapsed three times. So the building of the model also reflects聽this. The caps, sills, exterior bent posts, abutment posts and聽retaining walls were made from bamboo skewers. So were the extra
horizontal exterior girts. Bent posts were made from round聽toothpicks. The horizontal bent braces from the bamboo mats. Other聽bent braces, girts and stringers were from the Hunterline kit. I
followed the instructions from Hunterline and from various articles聽in hobby magazines, building the bents first.


I found that Micro Engineering聽instructions can be awkward and it is best to add the guard track
first, using CA adhesive and small clamps to make sure it is well聽stuck. I used only one guard track, rather the regular two. One guard聽rail or shorter ones are common in old photographs, probably due to聽shortage of materiel. Planks were glued in the centre of the bridge.聽The railway was the only route through the jungle and many people聽used it as a roadway, which meant there had to be places to walk聽between the ties. You still see the same kind of planks on railways聽in parts of Thailand today. The stringers were glued to the bottom of聽the track. Completing the bridge The standard bridge was built first聽by adding the girts and sway braces. I then added the additional聽girts


To weather this bridge, I had to keep in mind that it will be in a聽model rain forest. The track was painted a grayish color and then聽given a teak wash as I describe in the Apalon聽bridge post. The first step was to use a variety of green chalks聽brushed onto the bridge. The second step was to use black and gray聽chalks along the track and on the bents, since this was a heavily聽traveled steam railway. I had tested the standard weathering mix of聽heavily diluted shoe dye and alcohol on stir sticks but the result聽was far too dark for my purposes, based on some of the bridges I saw聽on my trips to Thailand and in the first colour photographs from the聽1950s (WWII photographs are in black and white). Then I remembered聽that this was rain forest. So I tried a new, two-fisted, approach,聽black weathering spray, followed immediately by a heavy spray of wet聽water. The result was a soaked newspaper and a very light grey with聽occasional patches of black. The two sprays also took away most of聽the chalks, so after all was dry, I added more green, brown and black聽chalks.

Support tree trunks
The leaf stems were soaked in dilute matte medium as a preservative.聽There were two levels of support logs, smaller ones attached to the聽lower tier and the second tree trunk logs to the upper tier. The聽stem/logs look good in the photograph but are quite delicate. Once聽all the bridges are ready and the track laid and glued, the stem/logs聽will be cut to a proper length and anchored.

The spider webs.
A glue called Liquisilk was distributed as free samples at the聽Toronto
Christmas Train Show
so I tried it out when adding the tie聽supports where I wanted to test the company’s claim that the glue聽could be strong in small amounts. It wasn’t until I took macro
photographs of the bridge that I noticed that there was excess glue,聽that it did look like spider webs, especially when fragments of chalk聽adhered to the dried glue. Liguisilk


At this point, before final installation on the layout, I sprayed the聽bridge with Krylon matte, then cleaned the track and temporarily聽installed it on the layout and successfully ran tests with my trains.

Coming up in the next few months
A river bridge A viaduct Smaller river and ravine bridges